Observational studies have suggested that infection with the HPV may increase the risk of subsequent HIV infection. Thus, the approval of safe and effective HPV vaccines against common oncogenic strains of HPV offers a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. The START team prepared a report evaluating the opportunity and challenges to using HPV vaccination to prevent HIV infection. Components of the report included an evaluation of the scientific evidence connecting HPV infection with increased HIV infection, a review of possible biological mechanisms through which such a connection may occur, and a cost-effectiveness analysis of using HPV vaccination to prevent HIV infection in resource-poor countries. Additionally, the START team compared study designs that could be used to evaluate whether HPV vaccination could reduce HIV infection. The comparison involved proposals for new studies as well as opportunities to leverage existing study populations and stored biological samples.