Dr. Drain's clinical research focuses on evaluating rapid diagnostic tests and strategies, including novel point-of-care technologies, for infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. The long-term goal of his research is to improve the diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis, HIV, and HIV-related opportunistic infections. To achieve these goals, Dr. Drain has been conducting clinical research in eastern Africa since 2003 and in South Africa since 2010, where he has developed strong collaborations with the University of KwaZulu-Natal, the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), the KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV (K-RITH), and several clinical sites throughout South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Dr. Drain also collaborates with bioengineering laboratories at the University of Washington, Harvard Medical School, and the University of California on the development and validation new rapid, clinic-based tests for infectious diseases in resource-limited settings.